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Conceptual Art

Started: Mid 1960s

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"People, buying my stuff, can take it wherever they go and can rebuild it if they choose. If they keep it in their heads, that's fine too. They don't have to buy it to have it - they can just have it by knowing it."
Lawrence Weiner
"In order to gain some insight into the forces that elevate certain products to the level of 'works of art' it is helpful - among other investigations - to look into the economic and political underpinnings of the institutions, individuals and groups who share in the control of power."
Hans Haacke
"When objects are presented within the context of art (and until recently objects always have been used) they are as eligible for aesthetic consideration as are any objects in the world, and an aesthetic consideration of an object existing in the realm of art means that the object's existence or functioning in an art context is irrelevant to the aesthetic judgment."
Joseph Kosuth
"All of the significant art of today stems from Conceptual art. This includes the art of installation, political, feminist, and socially directed art."
Sol LeWitt


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"Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of development that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical."


Conceptual art is a movement that prizes ideas over the formal or visual components of art works. An amalgam of various tendencies rather than a tightly cohesive movement, Conceptualism took myriad forms, such as performances, happenings, and ephemera. From the mid-1960s through the mid-1970s Conceptual artists produced works and writings that completely rejected standard ideas of art. Their chief claim - that the articulation of an artistic idea suffices as a work of art - implied that concerns such as aesthetics, expression, skill and marketability were all irrelevant standards by which art was usually judged. So drastically simplified, it might seem to many people that what passes for Conceptual art is not in fact "art" at all, much as Jackson Pollock's "drip" paintings, or Andy Warhol's Brillo Boxes (1964), seemed to contradict what previously had passed for art. But it is important to understand Conceptual art in a succession of avant-garde movements ( Cubism , Dada , Abstract Expressionism , Pop , etc.) that succeeded in self-consciously expanding the boundaries of art. Conceptualists put themselves at the extreme end of this avant-garde tradition. In truth, it is irrelevant whether this extremely intellectual kind of art matches one's personal views of what art should be, because the fact remains that Conceptual artists successfully redefine the concept of a work of art to the extent that their efforts are widely accepted as art by collectors, gallerists, and museum curators.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

A retrospective study of sera from mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) was undertaken to investigate whether the titers or affinities of antibodies against the third hypervariable region (V3 loop) of gp120 correlated with transmission of the virus from mother to child. The cohort comprised 7 mothers who transmitted HIV-1 to their children and 20 who did not. Sera were screened for reactivity against two synthetic peptides, one encompassing the entire V3 loop of gp120 (amino acids 297-330) and the other containing an immunodominant epitope from gp41 (amino acids 596-614). Doubling dilutions of sera were tested to obtain antibody titers against both peptides: Anti-gp41 titers were used to normalize the anti-V3 titers. Maternal sera were also screened for the presence of high-affinity antibodies against the V3 peptide. No differences were observed in either titers or affinities of maternal antibodies to the V3 sequence from transmitters and nontransmitters.

Simmonds P , McOmish F , McCullough P , Leadbetter GH , Peutherer JF , Middleton JD , Seth J . 1992. Contamination of immunoassay controls with hepatitis C virus. Lancet , 339 (8809), pp. 1607. | Read more

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

In an investigation of the evolution of the third hypervariable loop of gp120 (V3), the principal neutralization determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, we have analyzed 89 V3 sequences of plasma viral RNA purified from peripheral blood samples donated over 7 years by an infected hemophiliac. Considerable sequence diversity in the V3 region was found at all time points after seroconversion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that an important diversification had occurred by 3 years postinfection and that, subsequently, most sequences could be allocated to either one of two major lineages that persisted throughout the remainder of the infection. Rapid changes in frequency of the most common sequences and the observation that the same hexapeptide motif (GPGSAV) at the crown of the V3 loop has evolved convergently provide strong evidence that selective processes determine the evolutionary fate of sequence variants in this region.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

Sequences obtained in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were obtained from Scottish blood donors and compared with previously published HCV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of three distinct groups of sequences; two of these corresponded to the recently described HCV types 1 and 2 variants, while viral sequences detected in around a third of the blood donors formed a separate phylogenetic group that probably represents infection with a novel virus species. Nucleotide sequences of this latter group differed from all previously published 5'NCR sequence variants by at least 9%. This new virus type also differed considerably from previously published variants in other regions of the viral genome (core, NS-3 and NS-5), with corrected nucleotide distances of 15, 43 and 49% respectively from the prototype HCV-1 sequence. Formal phylogenetic analysis of each of the coding regions confirmed that HCV type 1 variants could be clearly differentiated into regional variants (Far East and U.S.A./European), in contrast to the clearly overlapping geographical distributions of the main HCV types in U.K. blood donors. We discuss the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the three main phylogenetic groups identified in this study represent separate species of HCV.

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